Just fill in the form below, click submit, you will get the price list, and we will contact you within one working day. Please also feel free to contact us via email or phone. (* is required).

how to use polyacrylamide refractive index

  • Refractive-index-matched hydrogel materials for

    2013-3-25 · explores the use of two hydrogels (agarose and poly-acrylamide) as refractive-index-matched models in water. These hydrogels are inexpensive, can be cast into desired shapes, and have flexibility that can be tuned to match biological materials. The use of water as the fluid phase allows this method to be implemented immediately in

    Get Price
  • Optical constants of polyacrylamide solution in the ...

    2018-2-1 · In the wavenumber range 2400–2800 cm −1, the refractive index of the PAM solution at different temperature shows a trend of decreasing first, and stabilizing, and then decreasing. With the increase of temperature, the refractive index of PAM solution increases gradually and the refractive index n range is 1.33–1.38.

    Get Price
  • Refractive index increments of polyacrylamide and

    The refractive index increments of polyacrylamide for various wavelength were determined both in the usual solvents (water, ethylene glycol, formamide) and in those so far unused (ethanolamine, dimethyl sulfoxide). The values thus obtained are compared with the reported data. The necessity to employ anhydrous polyacrylamide samples is stressed.

    Get Price
  • Refractive-index-matched hydrogel materials for

    2013-1-20 · We have developed two new possibilities for refractive index matching in particle image velocimetry: polyacrylamide and agarose hydrogels. These materials are refractively matched to water, allowing measurement of high-Reynolds-number flow surrounding the hydrogel.

    Get Price
  • Measurement of Young’s Modulus of Polyacrylamide Gel

    2011-6-6 · concentration, migration, and invasion. Some soft polymeric gels, such as polyacrylamide(PAA), are used as flexible substrates to culture various cells to match the mechanical properties of the cells, so that their biological activities can be evaluated. It has been reported that elastic stiffness of the substrate gels exerts

    Get Price
  • The instantaneous monitoring of polyacrylamide gels

    1976-12-1 · The use of local increments of refractive index in polyacrylamide gels for measuring protein concentrations in zones during electrophoresis is briefly considered; it is found that such increments are greater than would be expected from the amount of protein when sodium dodecyl sulphate is present.

    Get Price
  • Refractive Index Change Due to Volume-Phase Transition

    2015-10-18 · 1.To measure the grafting ratio of the graft copolymers accurately,a new method of specific refractive index increment measurement has been tried based on the observed solution properties of graft copolymers usually equal to the summation,which are contributed from different components of the copolymers.结果通过元素分析法测定样品中氮元素的百分含量,以及运用 折光指数增量法 ...

    Get Price
  • On the use of refractive-index-matched hydrogel for

    sphere collapses. This increase in index of refraction is what is expected when scattering spheres shrink and increase the scattering of light. We expect that the refractive index of PNIPAM at a temperature below the critical temperature would be comparable to water23) since the gel particles are engorged with water and not strongly scattering light.

    Get Price
  • RefractiveIndex.INFO - Refractive index database

    2014-11-21 · Refractive index matching (RIM) is one such approach. It involves the pairing of transparent fluid and solid materials, each with an index of refraction (IOR), n , similar to the other. For a ray traveling from one medium into a second, this relationship is expressed by the law of refraction: n sin θ = n ′sin θ ′ (commonly known as Snell’s law, e.g., Wolf and Krotzsch 1995 ).

    Get Price
  • Refractive-index-matched hydrogel materials for

    2012-12-5 · use are usually rigid and matched to liquids that are either expensive or highly viscous. This does not allow for measurements at high Reynolds number, nor accurate modeling of flexible structures. This work explores the use of two hydrogels (agarose and polyacrylamide) as refractive-index-matched models in water. These hydrogels are

    Get Price
  • Optical constants of polyacrylamide solution in the ...

    2018-2-1 · The real part of the complex refractive index is the usual refractive index n, and the imaginary part is the absorption index k. Transmittance T and absorbance A of PAM solutions for a given sample thickness l are expressed as (2a) T = I 0 I t = exp ( − α l ) (2b) A = − α l log 10 ( e ) Where, I 0 is the incident light intensity, I is the ...

    Get Price
  • Measurement of Young’s Modulus of Polyacrylamide Gel

    2011-6-6 · 0 is the refractive index of the air (=1), n g is the refractive index of the gel, d is the thickness of the gel. ∆L is the deformation of the gel. The refractive index of gel (n g) is measured with the Reichert Abbe Mark II PLUS ABBE Refractometer to be 1.65 g n =, …

    Get Price
  • Polyacrylamide | 9003-05-8

    However, materials currently in use are usually rigid and matched to liquids that are either expensive or highly viscous. This does not allow for measurements at high Reynolds number, nor accurate modeling of flexible structures. This work explores the use of two hydrogels (agarose and polyacrylamide) as refractive-index-matched models in water.

    Get Price
  • Refractive-index-matched hydrogel materials for

    Polyacrylamide (PAM) is a macromolecular polymer, and its solution is widely applied in oil exploitation, sewage treatment and paper making. Transmittance spectrum of PAM solution in the infrared wavelength region at normal incidence was investigated by an IRTracer-100 spectrometer, and the optical constants of PAM solution were obtained based on modelling transmittances combined with Kramers ...

    Get Price
  • Optical constants of polyacrylamide solution in

    2014-11-21 · Laboratory-based particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure current-driven hydrodynamics within and around a collection of complex obstacles. These obstacles were fabricated using a specialty superabsorbent hydrogel produced through the free-radical copolymerization of sodium acrylate and acrylamide. The optical properties of this gel were found to be nearly identical to those of ...

    Get Price
  • On the use of refractive-index-matched hydrogel for

    2007-3-16 · Polyacrylamide by GPC. Help!! I'm running a clients samples by GPC for Mw determination. The samples are low Mw polyacrylamide. Our first run was an attempt at using PEG reference standards for calibration. Here's what we noted: 1. Calibration is perfectly linear from 200,000 to …

    Get Price
  • Polyacrylamide by GPC - Chromatography Forum

    2021-7-12 · A refractive index is a number between 1.3000 and 1.7000 for most composites and it has no measurement unit. The index of refraction depends on room temperature and the wavelength of the light. It is very important to control room temperature when we use a refractometer that uses the RI scale because room temperature can affect the refractive ...

    Get Price
  • How to use a refractometer - optics - planet

    Refractive index database [about] Shelf. Book Page. Optical constants of Ag (Silver) Johnson and Christy 1972: n,k 0.188-1.94 µm. Wavelength: µm (0.1879 – 1.9370) Complex ...

    Get Price
  • Measurement of Young’s Modulus of Polyacrylamide Gel

    2011-6-6 · 0 is the refractive index of the air (=1), n g is the refractive index of the gel, d is the thickness of the gel. ∆L is the deformation of the gel. The refractive index of gel (n g) is measured with the Reichert Abbe Mark II PLUS ABBE Refractometer to be 1.65 g n =, …

    Get Price
  • The instantaneous monitoring of polyacrylamide gels

    1976-12-1 · The use of local increments of refractive index in polyacrylamide gels for measuring protein concentrations in zones during electrophoresis is briefly considered; it is found that such increments are greater than would be expected from the amount of protein when sodium dodecyl sulphate is present. The enhancement depends on conditions and time ...

    Get Price
  • Measurement of refractive index using a Michelson ...

    2016-4-6 · refractive index n calculated from each pair of variables using a computer program are also given. The average value of the refractive index was n = 1.481 +0.008. This should be compared with a value of 1.482 +0.004 found from the 'apparent depth method' (Nelkon and Parker 1970).

    Get Price
  • Instruction for Refractometer

    2016-5-6 · The refractive index is a physical property like a melting point, a boiling point, or density of a compound. It is very sensitive to the purity of the sample. It depends on the wavelength of the light it is acquired at and the temperature. Most instruments use the yellow sodium line (λ=589.3 nm, which is the average of the two emission lines ...

    Get Price
  • Concentration Measurement with Refractive Index

    Refractive Index Database. The table below contains links to refractive index data for common materials. Each material in the database has refractive index listed as a function of wavelength over a range typically required for thin-film thickness measurement. λ (nm)

    Get Price
  • Refractive Index Database – Table of Refractive Index ...

    2015-10-18 · 折光指数增量法,specific refractive index increment measurement 1)specific refractive index increment measurement折光指数增量法 1.To measure the grafting ratio of the graft copolymers accurately,a new method of specific refractive index increment measurement has been tried based on the observed solution properties of graft copolymers usually equal to the summation,which are ...

    Get Price
  • What is Refractive Index - Refractive index of water ...

    2019-5-25 · Experimental results of density, viscosity, and refractive index at 298.15, 303.15, and 308.15 K and speed of sound at 298.15 K in the binary mixtures of methyl acetate + ethylene glycol or + poly(...

    Get Price
  • Polyacrylamide Handbook - SNF Holding Company

    2016-8-19 · generate changes in the refractive index of the components and lead to slight color variations. Color changes can also occur during the storage (due to temperature differences, UV light etc.), and some pails may behave differently within the same batch, quite at random. It is absolutely impossible to predict or control such limited color changes.

    Get Price
  • Fact Sheet How to Use a Refractometer

    2016-3-24 · • Scientists have correlated the change in the refractive index, or bend of light, to % sugar. • Temperature affects the reading (increases 0.5% SSC for every 5°C or 10°F). The reading is only correct if done between 20-30°C (68-86°F). Otherwise use a correction table. 0.00. 5.00. 10.00. 15.00. Apple. Asparagus. Banana. Beans ...

    Get Price
  • Application Refractive Index Cary 5000 UV VIS 5994

    2019-1-4 · refractive index it is necessary to know not only the value of the reflection coefficient R but also the values of the extinction coefficient k. However, for single crystal Gd 3 Al 2 Ga 3 O 12:Ce the values of the extinction coefficient k is negligibly small even in the absorption bands.

    Get Price
  • Instruction for Refractometer

    2016-5-6 · The refractive index is a physical property like a melting point, a boiling point, or density of a compound. It is very sensitive to the purity of the sample. It depends on the wavelength of the light it is acquired at and the temperature. Most instruments use the yellow sodium line (λ=589.3 nm, which is the average of the two emission lines ...

    Get Price
  • Difference Between Dielectric Constant and Refractive

    2021-6-29 · The refractive index for crown glass is often given as being 1.52. This table shows how that figure alters with wavelength. An overview of refractive index. The refractive index (also known as the index of refraction) of a transparent medium allows the path of refracted light through a transparent medium to be calculated.; The refractive index is a ratio calculated by dividing the change in ...

    Get Price
  • How to Use the Refractive Index of a Medium

    Repeat the experiment with different liquids and study the variation of refractive index with temperature and wavelength. Procedure for doing real lab . Abbe's refractometer is used to measure the refractive index of the given organic liquid. Using a particular monochromatic light source, the apparatus is calibrated with water as the liquid.

    Get Price
  • Abbe's Refractometer (Procedure) : Modern Physics

    Polyacrylamide solution average Mw 1,500, 50 wt. % in H2O; CAS Number: 9003-05-8; find Sigma-Aldrich-434930 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at …

    Get Price
  • Polyacrylamide solution average Mw 1,500, 50 wt. %

    UV cured low refractive index optical adhesives, coatings and cladding materials have special requirements regarding curing under inert conditions, which are described here. Other issues include optimal selection of low refractive index UV cured optical adhesives ...

    Get Price
  • The instantaneous monitoring of polyacrylamide gels

    The use of local increments of refractive index in polyacrylamide gels for measuring protein concentrations in zones during electrophoresis is briefly considered; it is found that such increments are greater than would be expected from the amount of protein when sodium dodecyl sulphate is present.

    Get Price
  • How to Use the Refractive Index of a Medium

    2021-6-29 · The refractive index for crown glass is often given as being 1.52. This table shows how that figure alters with wavelength. An overview of refractive index. The refractive index (also known as the index of refraction) of a transparent medium allows the path of refracted light through a transparent medium to be calculated.; The refractive index is a ratio calculated by dividing the change in ...

    Get Price
  • optics - Reflectivity with Complex Refractive Index ...

    2019-1-9 · R = ( n r 1 − n r 2) 2 + ( k 1 − k 2) 2 ( n r 1 + n r 2) 2 + ( k 1 + k 2) 2. If we take the incident medium as air and the second material as a metal, then it is safe to assume that. n 2 > n 1. and the first equation can be rewritten as: R = ( n 2 − n 1 n 1 + n 2) 2. I am unable to simplify this expression into the expression above.

    Get Price
  • The instantaneous monitoring of polyacrylamide gels

    The use of local increments of refractive index in polyacrylamide gels for measuring protein concentrations in zones during electrophoresis is briefly considered; it is found that such increments are greater than would be expected from the amount of protein when sodium dodecyl sulphate is present.

    Get Price
  • Refractive index and absorption detector for liquid ...

    2002-5-1 · Refractive-index detection by interferometric backscatter in packed-capillary high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A 1997, 762 (1-2) , 219-225. DOI: 10.1016/S0021-9673(96)00852-7. Darryl J. Bornhop. Microvolume index of refraction determinations by …

    Get Price
  • Refractometer uses in Industry | Applications

    2012-12-5 · However, materials currently in use are usually rigid and matched to liquids that are either expensive or highly viscous. This does not allow for measurements at high Reynolds number, nor accurate modeling of flexible structures. This work explores the use of two hydrogels (agarose and polyacrylamide) as refractive-index-matched models in water.

    Get Price
  • How to Read and Use a Refractometer - Grainger

    2003-1-28 · To describe the real part of dust refractive index, the value 1.55 obtained by Patterson et al. was used. [10] The relationship between the 331/360 nm radiance ratio and the 360 nm radiance measured by TOMS for a known aerosol optical depth constitutes the basis of the retrieval method as illustrated in Figure 1 .

    Get Price
  • [1212.0820] Refractive-index-matched hydrogel

    2012-12-5 · However, materials currently in use are usually rigid and matched to liquids that are either expensive or highly viscous. This does not allow for measurements at high Reynolds number, nor accurate modeling of flexible structures. This work explores the use of two hydrogels (agarose and polyacrylamide) as refractive-index-matched models in water.

    Get Price
  • Molecular weight characterization of

    1992-10-5 · The corresponding refractive index increment at constant chemical potential (6n/6c), is 0.1464. HUNKELER, WU, AND HAMIELEC 0.14 - 20 HYDROLYSIS DEGREE Figure 3 Refractive index increment at constant chemical potential as a function of the acrylate level in a polyacrylamide …

    Get Price
  • DETERMINATION OF NON-IONIC AND PARTIALLY

    The specific refractive index increments of the polymers investigated was determined using a Chromatix KMX-16 laser refractometer. The instrument operation, as well as data collection and processing was accomplished using the combination of a Nelson Analytical Model 761 A/D converter and an …

    Get Price
  • 9-1 LAB 9: OPTICAL MATERIALS AND DISPERSION I

    2016-8-10 · Plot the refractive indices you measured vs. wavelength (in nm). This is known as a dispersion curve. Each glass type has its own characteristic dispersion curve, published in the form of coefficients to a curve-fit of the measured refractive index data. Assuming that the prism you measured is a type of flint glass, use the

    Get Price
  • Refractometer uses in Industry | Applications

    2019-1-9 · R = ( n r 1 − n r 2) 2 + ( k 1 − k 2) 2 ( n r 1 + n r 2) 2 + ( k 1 + k 2) 2. If we take the incident medium as air and the second material as a metal, then it is safe to assume that. n 2 > n 1. and the first equation can be rewritten as: R = ( n 2 − n 1 n 1 + n 2) 2. I am unable to simplify this expression into the expression above.

    Get Price
  • optics - Reflectivity with Complex Refractive Index ...

    We claim: 1. A transparent optical coating comprising a hydrogel having a refractive index of less than 1.40, a dynamic shear modulus of about 1×10 2 dynes/cm 2 to about 3×10 5 dynes/cm 2 at a frequency of 1.0 rad/second and an equilibrium water content of at least about 50 wt. %. 2.

    Get Price
  • Optical coating having low refractive index - Avery ...

    2021-6-3 · The refractive index of an object is the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in the object. Use these tips to learn how to calculate the refractive index in physics. Steps. Method 1 of 2: Determine the Measurements Needed For the Calculation Download Article 1. Measure the width of the transparent object. ...

    Get Price
  • How to Calculate the Refractive Index in Physics: 7

    2019-6-19 · A high refractive index polymer was synthesized by the copolymerization of styrene with different functionalized N-phenyl maleimides, phenyloxide (P1), phenylsulfide (P2), and phenylselenide (P3). The effects of the substituent elements, molecular weight and selenium content on refractive indices, thermostability, and the glass transition temperature of the obtained polymers were investigated.

    Get Price
  • Synthesis of high refractive index polymer with pendent ...

    2003-1-28 · To describe the real part of dust refractive index, the value 1.55 obtained by Patterson et al. was used. [10] The relationship between the 331/360 nm radiance ratio and the 360 nm radiance measured by TOMS for a known aerosol optical depth constitutes the basis of the retrieval method as illustrated in Figure 1 .

    Get Price
  • Characterization of ultrahigh-molecular weight

    In this study, frit inlet asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF) with multi-angle light scattering (MALS) and differential refractive index (DRI) detection is utilized for size separation, determination of molecular weight (MW), and conformation of ultrahigh-MW (10 7-10 9 g/mol) cationic polyacrylamides (C-PAMs), a class of water-soluble copolymers based on acrylamide and vinyl ...

    Get Price
  • 9-1 LAB 9: OPTICAL MATERIALS AND DISPERSION I

    2016-8-10 · Plot the refractive indices you measured vs. wavelength (in nm). This is known as a dispersion curve. Each glass type has its own characteristic dispersion curve, published in the form of coefficients to a curve-fit of the measured refractive index data. Assuming that the prism you measured is a type of flint glass, use the

    Get Price
  • Refractive index - Light and sound - reflection and ...

    2021-7-11 · r is the angle of refraction. A refractive index has no units. Air has an index of 1.0, water is 1.3 and many types of glass are around 1.5. This means that light travels 1.3 times as fast in air ...

    Get Price
  • Discover the Concepts of Refractive Index and Oil

    Oil Immersion and Refractive Index. One way of increasing the optical resolving power of the microscope is to use immersion liquids between the front lens of the objective and the cover slip. Most objectives in the magnification range between 60x and 100x (and higher) are designed for use with immersion oil. Good results have been obtained with ...

    Get Price
  • Synthesis of high refractive index polymer with pendent ...

    2019-6-19 · A high refractive index polymer was synthesized by the copolymerization of styrene with different functionalized N-phenyl maleimides, phenyloxide (P1), phenylsulfide (P2), and phenylselenide (P3). The effects of the substituent elements, molecular weight and selenium content on refractive indices, thermostability, and the glass transition temperature of the obtained polymers were investigated.

    Get Price
  • Relative Permittivity and Refractive Index | Physics

    2017-5-3 · Permittivity is a function of wavelength (frequency). 80.4 value is valid for microwave diapason, not for optical one. For optical frequencies you should calculate permittivity from refractive index, i.e. [tex]epsilon_r = n^2[/tex]

    Get Price
  • Using Your Beer Refractometer Brix - Winning

    2020-8-21 · The refractive index for most compounds is between 1.3000 and 1.7000 (out to 5 digits) and has no units. But to be totally accurate, since the index of refraction depends on the temperature of the sample and the wavelength of light used , these units are usually indicated when reporting the refractive index of a substance.

    Get Price
  • Greatly Enhanced Single Particle Fluorescence

    2021-1-28 · High sensitivity and easy integration with microfabrication techniques has made silicon photonics one of the leading technologies used to build biosensors for diagnostic applications. Here we introduce a new silicon dioxide based optofluidic platform having a planar solid-core (SC) waveguide orthogonally intersecting a liquid-core (LC) waveguide with high refractive index ZnI Get Price