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production of alum and ferric chloride pros cons and substitutes in europe

  • Alum and Ferric Chloride: Pros, Cons, and Substitutes

    2017-10-18 · What are some substitutes for alum and ferric chloride? Substitutes include other aluminum and iron salts, like sodium aluminate and ferric sulfate, but these may or may not work. Proprietary products, instead of commodities, may offer a better solution. For example, a few products from ATS Innova’s ATS 800 line are excellent substitutes for alum and ferric chloride: ATS 835 is a great replacement for alum …

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  • what is the advantage of polyelectrolytes as a ...

    Alum and Ferric Chloride: Pros, Cons, and Substitutes ATS 806 removes much more total organic carbon than either alum or ferric chloride. And while it may be a bit more expensive than the ferric, the amount needed is roughly only 25% of the amount of ferric required, so it’s often the same price or cheaper—with a better water quality as the outcome.

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  • white aluminium chloride water treatment chemicals

    Alum and Ferric Chloride: Pros, Cons, and Substitutes for. As every water treater knows, coagulants are used in the first step of water treatment; they destabilize the water so micro flocks can begin to form. This is followed up by a polymer, which turns it into a larger flock by creating a bigger charge.

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  • use of ferric sulfate as a coagulant for water treatment

    Alum and Ferric Chloride: Pros, Cons, and Substitutes. 2017-10-18· For example, a water treater who feeds 25 parts of alum (or a related product) might get away with feeding just 2-3 parts of ATS 835. And because ATS 835 is completely soluble, it will hardly increase solids due to the coagulant.

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  • A Comparison Of Aluminum And Iron-based Coagulants

    2020-10-13 · less effective than ACH at removing organics. Sludge settling curves, dose-sludge production ratios, and settling velocities were determined at optimum DOC removal conditions for each coagulant. Ferric chloride was found to have the highest sludge settling rate but also produced the largest sludge quantities.

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  • aluminium chloride in water | Industrial water

    Aluminium chloride (AlCl3), also known as aluminium trichloride, is the main compound of aluminium and chlorine. It is white, but samples are often contaminated with iron(III) chloride, giving it a yellow color. The solid has a low melting and boiling point. It is mainly produced and consumed in the production of aluminium metal, but large ...

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  • Coagulation and Rapid Mixing - Oregon

    2020-6-27 · Ferric chloride (FeCl3) is the most common iron salt used to achieve coagulation. Its reactions in the coagulation process are similar to those of alum, but its relative solubility and pH range differ significantly from those of alum. Both alum and ferric chloride can be used to generate inorganic polymeric coagulants. These

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  • ferric aluminum sulfate production

    ferric aluminum sulfate production. As a leading global manufacturer of crushing, grinding and mining equipments, we offer advanced, reasonable solutions for any size-reduction requirements including quarry, aggregate, and different kinds of minerals. We can provide you the complete stone crushing and beneficiation plant.We also supply stand ...

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  • anaerobic bacteria agent using polyaluminium

    Organics removal and enhanced coagulation are effective with traditional coagulants like aluminum sulfate, ferric chloride and ferric sulfate, as well as formulations like polyaluminum chloride (PACl) and acid alum. Acid alum formulations are aluminum sulfate with 1 to 15-percent free sulfuric acid. Get Price

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  • effect of polyaluminium chloride on phosphorus

    Polyaluminium chloride can not be solved, and it needs to be pretreated with strong oxidant to oxidize phosphorus, organic phosphorus to orthophosphate and then to polyaluminium chloride. The theoretical effect of polyaluminium chloride removal is ideal, but with many manufacturers reducing production costs, the current polyaluminium chloride

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  • A Comparison Of Aluminum And Iron-based Coagulants

    2020-10-13 · Ferric chloride and ACH were observed to obtain the highest DOC (85% and 70%, respectively) and color (98% and 97%, respectively) removals at the lowest dose concentrations (120 mg/L and 100 mg/L, respectively).

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  • Coagulation and Rapid Mixing - Oregon

    2020-6-27 · Ferric chloride (FeCl3) is the most common iron salt used to achieve coagulation. Its reactions in the coagulation process are similar to those of alum, but its relative solubility and pH range differ significantly from those of alum. Both alum and ferric chloride can be used to generate inorganic polymeric coagulants. These

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  • production of alum - ordinacemirova.cz

    The History of Alum Production and it's links to the Jun 07, 2019 Alum Production the chemistry 3000 tonnes of alum a year were being produced by the early 1800’s It takes 12 tonnes of Shale to produce 1 tonne of alum To get the 12 tonnes of shale 3 times that amount (36 tonnes) of overhanging rock must be removed Alum is a double sulphate ...

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  • Coagulant Action In Mining - feldmann

    Alum And Ferric Chloride Pros Cons And Substitutes . ATS 835 is a great replacement for alum because it does an amazing job, but with a much, much smaller dose. For example, a water treater who feeds 25 parts of alum or a related product might get away with feeding just 2-3 parts of ATS 835.

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  • Ferric chloride in drinking water treatment'

    Alum and Ferric Chloride: Pros, Cons, and Substitutes for . Atsinnovawatertreatment.com DA: 27 PA: 43 MOZ Rank: 74. Alternatively, if a water treatment plant is using ferric chloride, a recommended replacement product is ATS 806; This product is not only a successful replacement but also offers a much better quality of water for the same ...

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  • HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT FOR

    Humans . The use of 26 Al as a tracer and accelerator mass spectrometry has enabled safe studies of aluminium toxicokinetics with real exposure-relevant doses in humans. Aluminium bioavailability from occupational inhalation exposure is ~ 2% whereas oral aluminium bioavailability from water has been reported to be 0.1 to 0.4%.

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  • Water Handbook - Clarification | SUEZ

    Alum serves two main purposes as an adjuvant. First, it acts as an antigen depot. Vaccine antigens adsorb to alum and elute from it following injection into the host. Second, alum acts a mild irritant, causing the recruitment of leukocytes necessary for generation of an immune response to the site of injection.

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  • Alum - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

    2019-1-1 · Membrane fouling is a complex process which often results from the additive impacts of a combination of foulants listed above [11,26,28].Of the various types of fouling, biological fouling is the most difficult to prevent or control in the seawater desalination [10,23,29,30].The biological fouling potential depends on several factors: the concentration and speciation of microorganisms ...

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  • Selection of pretreatment technologies for seawater ...

    2017-2-6 · ATS do Brasil Announces Water Treatment Solutions Bid for Campinas-Based SANASA. ATS do Brasil, a subsidiary of ATS and prominent drinking water and wastewater treatment company, is happy to announce winning the water treatment bid with SANASA, a leading treatment company located in Campinas Brazil.

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  • poly aluminium chloride hexahydrate alcl3.6h2o ferric ...

    2021-6-13 · Alum and Ferric Chloride: Pros, Cons, and Substitutes for . Substitutes include other aluminum and iron salts, like sodium aluminate and ferric sulfate, but these may or may not work. Proprietary products, instead of commodities, may offer a better solution. For example, a few products from ATS Innova’s ATS 800 line are excellent substitutes ...

    Get Price
  • Ferric chloride in drinking water treatment' Keyword

    Alum and Ferric Chloride: Pros, Cons, and Substitutes for . Atsinnovawatertreatment.com DA: 27 PA: 43 MOZ Rank: 74. Alternatively, if a water treatment plant is using ferric chloride, a recommended replacement product is ATS 806; This product is not only a successful replacement but also offers a much better quality of water for the same ...

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  • APPENDIX 2A: Review of Recent Studies and Trials on ...

    2003-2-24 · A 2.2.3.1 In the SSDS Stage 1 Dosing and Disinfection Study, ferric chloride, ferric sulphate, ferrous sulphate, aluminium sulphate (alum), poly-aluminium chloride (PAC) and two cationic polymers were selected for evaluation in laboratory-scale jar tests and column tests. Anionic

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  • Iron Coagulant - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

    8.21 Iron Coagulants. Iron coagulants in the ferric form behave similarly to aluminium sulphate and form ferric hydroxide floc in the presence of bicarbonate alkalinity. A dose of 1 mg/l of ferric sulphate or chloride as Fe neutralizes 2.7 mg/l alkalinity expressed as CaCO 3 and increases the CO 2 …

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  • Ferric Sulphate - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

    Like alum, ferric sulfate also requires alkalinity in the water in order to form the flock particles ferric hydroxide [Fe(OH) 3].When natural alkalinity is not sufficient, alkaline chemicals (such as soluble salts containing HCO 3 −, CO −2 and OH − ion) should be added. Compared to alum, ferric …

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  • Wastewater Treatment Methods Pros and Cons:

    2019-4-16 · Methods Pros and Cons: Disinfection &. Coagulation. At every stage in a wastewater treatment process is important to achieve the desired treatment results. However, primary treatment and tertiary are critical to the overall process. In the primary treatment process solids are reduced to a …

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  • Water Handbook - Clarification | SUEZ

    Alum and sodium aluminate should not be added together as they will combine to form excessive alumina hydroxide, tie up the alumina, and form deposits[3]. Trim alum can then be used for pH in the fan pump. References. 1. 'The Role of Alum in Papermaking,' Trade Literature Nalco Chemical Company. 2. Nist Chemistry WebBook. (2000).

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  • Ferric chloride in drinking water treatment'

    Alum and Ferric Chloride: Pros, Cons, and Substitutes for . Atsinnovawatertreatment.com DA: 27 PA: 43 MOZ Rank: 74. Alternatively, if a water treatment plant is using ferric chloride, a recommended replacement product is ATS 806; This product is not only a successful replacement but also offers a much better quality of water for the same ...

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  • 1.4: Coagulation and Flocculation - Workforce

    Alum and Ferric Chloride: Pros, Cons, and Substitutes for . Atsinnovawatertreatment.com DA: 27 PA: 43 MOZ Rank: 71. How are alum and ferric chloride used in water treatment? As every water treater knows, coagulants are used in the first step of water treatment; they destabilize the water so micro flocks can begin to form This is followed up by a polymer, which turns it …

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  • Ferric chloride as a coagulant' Keyword Found

    2021-7-11 · Alum and ferric chloride are chemical flocculants used to harvest algae. A commercial product called “Chitosin”, commonly used for water purification, can also be used as a flocculant. The shells of crustaceans are ground into powder and processed to acquire chitin, a polysaccharide found in the shells, from which chitosin is derived.

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  • Algae Harvesting Techniques and Methods (Low

    • Cons: Chemical handling, increased operational costs, increased sludge production, consumes alkalinity 20 Chemicals used for phosphorus precipitation Chemical Formula Removal mechanism Effect on pH Aluminum Sulfate (Alum) Al2(SO4)3.14.3(H2O) M.W. = 599.4 Metal hydroxides removes alkalinity Ferric Chloride FeCl3 M.W. = 162.3 Metal hydroxides ...

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  • Vaccine Ingredients and Manufacturer Information -

    USALCO Aluminum Sulfate (Alum), is a high quality, iron-free, clear solution that meets the specifications of the American Water Works Association Standard B403-16 and complies with the requirements of NSF/ANSI/CAN 60 at a maximum dosage of 150 mg/L.

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  • FINAL Phosphorus Webinar Compiled Slides with Notes

    The method of generating an aqueous solution of … For example, when using a form of implementation of the proposed method, represented by the circuit of Fig. 4, a dilute aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide may be reintroduced in reexpose obtain an aqueous solution of sodium chloride from the flue gases, containing hydrogen chloride and heavy metals, comprising contacting gases with powdered

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  • Aluminum Sulfate Solution | Turbidity, TOC, BOD |

    In the second stage chlorine dioxide accepts 4 electrons and forms chloride (Cl-). In the water some chlorate (ClO 3), which is formed by the production of chlorine dioxide, can also be found. Both chlorate and chlorite are oxidizing agents. Chlorine dioxide, chlorate and chlorite dissociate into sodium chloride …

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  • small scale ferric alum manufactur pro

    small scale ferric alum manufactur project cost. small scale ferric alum manufactur project cost This production line about small scale ferric alum manufactur project cost is ... 4.2 ferric chloride 25 4.2.1 ... Request Quotation. Previous:cresher mashiner in etaly for sale Next:interlock cement bricks manufacturing project report. Get Price

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  • Vaccine Ingredients and Manufacturer Information -

    Sodium chloride is widely used in the production of industrial chemicals such as caustic soda, chlorine, sodium chlorite, and sodium hypochlorite. Sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and magnesium chloride are extensively used in snow and ice control. Potassium chloride is used in the production of fertilizers (4). Environmental fate

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  • Chloride in Drinking-water - WHO

    2020-2-28 · Pros – Sustainable treatment process – Low O&M costs – No chemical storage and feed systems – Less sludge production – Anaerobic selector provides improved sludge settleability • Cons – Phosphorus re-release – Cannot achieve extremely low limits – …

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  • P REMOVAL: TREATMENT AND CAPABILITIES

    Modern developmental aspects in the field of economical harvesting and biodiesel production from microalgae biomass

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  • Sustainable Post Treatment Options of Anaerobic

    2018-1-25 · Synthesis of Aspirin By: Jon Torre Purpose: To determine which of four catalysts yields the fastest reaction rate in the acetylation of salicylic acid (1) to form acetylsalicylic acid (2). Reactions: Procedure and Results: Aspirin Synthesis Tap water was heated on a steam bath in a 250 mL beaker. The temperature of an alcohol thermometer was equilibrated in a beaker of room temperature tap water.

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  • (PDF) Modern developmental aspects in the field of ...

    Students will use the scientific method to learn about the growth properties of algae and how algae production may be a possible solution to address the global energy crisis. Students will utilize the engineering design process to apply their knowledge about algae growth to create a bioreactor for algae production and discover if biofuel can be made from algae.

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  • Synthesis of Aspirin - Lab Report and Analysis - Odinity

    Fundamentals of Water Treatment Unit Processes, Physical, Chemical, and Biological (2011).pdf

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  • production of alum - ordinacemirova.cz

    The History of Alum Production and it's links to the Jun 07, 2019 Alum Production the chemistry 3000 tonnes of alum a year were being produced by the early 1800’s It takes 12 tonnes of Shale to produce 1 tonne of alum To get the 12 tonnes of shale 3 times that amount (36 tonnes) of overhanging rock must be removed Alum is a double sulphate ...

    Get Price
  • small scale ferric alum manufactur pro

    small scale ferric alum manufactur project cost. small scale ferric alum manufactur project cost This production line about small scale ferric alum manufactur project cost is ... 4.2 ferric chloride 25 4.2.1 ... Request Quotation. Previous:cresher mashiner in etaly for sale Next:interlock cement bricks manufacturing project report. Get Price

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  • Chlorine in Drinking Water — The Good, the Bad, and

    THMs increase the production of free radicals in the body and are highly carcinogenic (cancer causing). Chlorine and THMS have been linked to various types of cancer, kidney and liver damage, immune system dysfunction, disorders of the nervous system, hardening of the arteries, and birth defects.

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  • Investigation Of Effects Of Alum And Potassium ...

    2021-6-3 · alum slate and bituminous shale and which consist chiefly of sulphates of iron and aluminium. Native alumen from melos appears to have been a mixture mainly of alunogen (Al2 (SO4)3 . 17H2O) with alum and other minor sulphates [55]. The western desert of Egypt was a major source of alum substitutes in antiquity. These evaporites were mainly

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  • Wastewater management approach in an industrial

    2018-4-9 · Table 2 lists some of the pre-treated wastewater sources and characteristics for an industrial park in Jiangsu Province, China. Occupying a land area of 12.89 km 2, the said industrial park is host to 73 precision chemical companies, manufacturing a wide range of chemical, pharmaceutical and herbicidal products.As these companies are generating streams that are high in concentration, toxicity ...

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  • liquid sulfate for water plant cost - sqlconsultancy.nl

    Pros and cons of granular and liquid fertilizers - MSU , Dec 29, 2016· Pros and cons of granular and liquid fertilizers Theoretically, plants can’t tell the difference between nutrients supplied by the granular and liquid fertilizers, but they both have advantages depending on the farming application , In liquid form, they are more mobile in the soil water solution , The cost of converting ...

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  • Chemical Industry Project Reports and Technology

    In the 8 th century, there was the development of production of Cordovan in Spain, a leather type obtained from new progresses in tanning was popular throughout Europe for many centuries. In the 14 th century, leather was used along with wood in furniture like chairs, tables, arm setters etc.

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  • MS Report new.docx - TITLE OF REPORT IN ALL

    Cell Culture Technology for Pharmaceutical and Cell-Based Therapies S. Ozturk and Hu WS copy

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  • (PDF) Cell Culture Technology for Pharmaceutical and

    Leaching is known to account for about 10% of the yearly copper production. The commonly used leaching agents are sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, ferric chloride, nitric acid, ferric sulfate,ammonia or ammonium carbonate, hydroxide, and microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast, and fungi.

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  • Pros and Cons of Wastewater Treatment Methods:

    Alum, Ferric chloride, Ferric sulfate, Ferrous sulfate, and Lime are some of the additives used to neutralize the charged particles. ... The addition of chemicals also results in the production of a large volume of sludge that will need to be treated and disposed of following treatment. ... Summary Table of Pros and Cons Coagulation ...

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  • OCTOBER 31, 2012 NAMI Environmental Conference

    alum and 6.5 to 7.5 for ferric salt • Pros: – Reliable process and easy to control • Cons: – Safety issues, – May inhibit the UV disinfection performance – Decrease the pH, Additional Cost – Overall feeding may cause system to become P limited 32

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  • Extractive Nutrient Recovery as a Green Option for ...

    2017-10-17 · MR396 Biological treatment is a cost effective, robust option for carbon and nutrient removal Biological nutrient removal uses microorganisms Solids generated must be processed before disposal Anaerobic digestion is a common solids treatment option To solids handling To solids handling

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  • (PDF) Title: A review on application of flocculants in ...

    Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers.

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  • Nuberg EPC to Build Chlor-Alkali and Calcium

    2021-5-27 · editor, coordinated production and prepared the Microsoft Word and PDF versions of the Teacher’s Guide. E-mail: [email protected] Articles from past issues of . ChemMatters. can be accessed from a CD that is available from the American Chemical Society for 30. The CD contains all . ChemMatters. issues from February 1983 to April 2008. The ...

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  • Fuller’s Earth

    2014-9-8 · There are a few methods for MNG extraction and there are pros and cons for the different methods. Wu et al. (2007) used Soxhlet apparatus with petroleum ether (30–60 °C) for 5 h, 80% ethanol reflux, hot water extraction (65 °C) and ethanol precipitation. Srichamroen & Chavasit (2011) ground malva nuts into powder and used alkaline extraction followed by ethanol precipitation and freezing ...

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  • Extraction, characterization and application of

    2019-11-6 · UNIDO pub on UNIDO technical assistance in the field of leather and leather goods - covers (1) assistance to effluent treatment or tanning factorys in such African states as Burundi, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique and Nigeria (2) regional hides and skins improvement scheme, development objectives, project implementation, financial aspects (3) project in the field of shoes ...

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  • What Is Muriatic Acid? Facts and Uses - ThoughtCo

    Market Overview The global Poly Aluminium Ferric Chloride Materials market size is expected to gain market growth in the forecast period of 2020 to 2025, with a CAGR of xx% in the forecast period of 2020 to 2025 and will expected to reach USD xx million by 2025, from USD xx million in 2019. The Poly Aluminium Ferric Chloride Materials market report provides a detailed analysis of global market ...

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