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study on optimal conditions of poly ferric chloride specifications

  • Study on optimal conditions of poly ferric chloride

    2021-1-1 · Based on Table 3, at PFC conditions, it can be seen that the pH from 7.6 to 10.4 requires less amount of NaOH (approximately 9 ml of 1 N NaOH per 1 L of sample water) to balance than in optimal conditions of PAC flocculation. The amount of NaOH used increases the pH …

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  • Study on optimal conditions of poly ferric chloride

    The application of PFC was conducted in batch test to find the optimum conditions including pH, PFC dose, and rotation speed in term of treating tannery wastewater performance. In addition, a common flocculant polyaluminium chloride (PAC) was chosen to compare with PFC in term of treatment efficiency and cost effective.

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  • Comparison of poly ferric chloride and poly titanium ...

    2021-1-28 · According to the results of the study, the optimal coagulant PTC and PFC dosage was 600 and 800 mg/L, respectively. Therefore, the costs of the coagulation-flocculation process for treatment of 1 m 3 of paper and cardboard wastewater using PTC and PFC were estimated to …

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  • Efficiency Comparison of PolyDADMAC Coagulant

    2017-11-1 · The optimum doses of ferric chloride with PolyDADMAC were obtained at 15mg/L and 0/4mg/L, respectively. Under higher doses of PolyDADMAC, flocs showed stabilized in solution .In addition, PolyDADMAC also produced larger floc with higher settling velocity that need less time to settle.

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  • Preparation and coagulation performance of poly

    2011-3-1 · Poly-ferric-aluminum-silicate-sulfate (PFASS) consists of NaAl(SO4)2·(H2O)6 and other crystals. The morphology of PFASS is largely influenced by (Al+Fe)/Si molar ratio. The optimal (Al+Fe)/Si mole ratio is 12:1 for the turbidity removal and 16:1 for COD removal.

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  • Synthesis, purification and characterization of ...

    2015-5-26 · Considering the purity and yield of extracted (Al + Fe) b species in PAFC samples, the optimal separation conditions were as follows: organic solvents mixing ratio = 2:1:7 and the middle organic solvents dosage V 2 = 100 mL (V 1 = V 3 = 50 mL).

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  • Study of Esterification Waste water Treatment by

    2018-12-12 · polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), poly aluminum ferric chloride (PAFC)), the influences of flocculent concentration, temperature and pH on the treatment based on removal rate of CODcr and turbidity were investigated by orthogonal experiment method. Then two kinds of coagulant aid (cationic poly acryl amide (CPAM) and anionic poly acryl amide (APAM)) were tested to

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  • Improvement of coagulation–flocculation process

    2005-1-1 · In order to determine the optimal dose of anionic polyacrylamide, the removal efficiency of COD, BOD 5 and TSS were taken into account , the optimal doses chosen were 25 mg l −1 with ferric sulphate, 75 mg l −1 with aluminium sulphate and 20 mg l −1 with polyaluminium chloride.

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  • Effect of silicon dose on preparation and

    2010-9-15 · The oil shale ash was explored as a raw material for a type of new inorganic coagulant poly-ferric-aluminum-silicate-sulfate (PFASS) with various (Al + Fe)/Si molar ratios. The coagulation performances were evaluated by jar test in treating sewage, the zeta potential of the sewage was also used to evaluate the charge neutralization ability, and the microscopic images of flocs were measured …

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  • Pretreatment for seawater desalination by

    2011-12-1 · PFSi-δ can be produced from PFSi by dilution, changing the duration of the heating and aging sections, changing the speed of the acidification, or decreasing the molarity the ferric chloride added. In this study, however, PFSi was modified to become PFSi-δ just by diluting the PFSi 40 times with deionised water in order to decrease the iron content in final solution.

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  • Study of Esterification Waste water Treatment by

    2018-12-12 · In this study, the Esterification wastewater was treated ... (PFS), poly aluminum ferric chloride (PAFC)), the influences of flocculent concentration, temperature and pH on the treatment based on removal rate of CODcr and turbidity were investigated by orthogonal experiment method. ... optimal flocculation conditions were expected to obtain through

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  • Ferrics, Alums & Polymers Polyethylene ... - Poly

    2019-7-5 · obtained from the literature. Reports show that Ferric chloride, alum and aluminium chloride has optimum mixing speed of 120, 140 and 140rpm at pH 4, 4 and 6 at 35℃. . Flocculation of latex effluent was carried conditions. Results and Discussion Preparation of poly aluminium chloride (PAC) From 20 cans, 190 g of aluminium powder was

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  • Production of Industrial Coagulant (Poly Aluminium ...

    Feasibility of this process for wastewater treatment were investigated in detail by comparing the removal performance of three inorganic chemical coagulants (polyaluminium chloride, polyaluminium ferric chloride [PAFC] and poly ferric sulfate) individual or couple with poly acrylamide, optimizing the conditions during CEPT by both single factor ...

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  • Feasibility and optimization of wastewater treatment

    The results showed that poly aluminum ferric chloride (PAFC) was chosen as an optimum coagulant for effective treatment. The optimal coagulation precipitation conditions were determined as follows: pH8, dosage of PAFC 1200mg/l, PAM100mg/l, sedimentation time 30 min.

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  • Study on Environmental Materials with Treatment of

    Results: The most optimal efficiency conditions of poly aluminum chloride were pH=8, rapid mixing of 120rpm and optimal dose of 5ppm which was 93.14% in pH=8 and 93.80% for optimal dose of 5ppm. The most optimal condition for poly ferric sulfate included pH=8, rapid mixing of 120 rpm and optimal …

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  • Investigation Of Efficiency Of Polyferric Sulfate(PFS ...

    This study aimed at, pre-treatment of sweet potato starch wastewater and acquisition the application conditions of environmental materials though coagulation precipitation. The removal rates of COD and turbidity were investigated by process to find kind and quantity of suitable coagulant, quantity of coagulate aids, pH and setting time. The results showed that poly aluminum ferric chloride ...

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  • Study on Environmental Materials with Treatment of

    2013-12-24 · polyaluminium ferric chloride and cationic polyacryla-mide, we tried to prepare a composite flocculant consist-ing of sodium alginate, polyaluminium ferric chloride and cationic polyacrylamide to treat papermaking waste- water. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the flocculation performance of the composite flocculant. 2.

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  • Preparation and Study of a Composite Flocculant for ...

    2016-6-15 · The preparation conditions were optimized. The results show that the optimal preparation conditions are as follows:the ratio of OH- concentration to total Al and Fe concentration( r )0.5,the ratio of total Al and Fe concentration to TS1 mass concentration( R m )0.5 mol/g,and the …

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  • The Optimal Experimental Research on the Fluoride

    In this paper the experiment research of fluoride removal was based on coagulating sedimentation method, and the defluorination effect of coagulant’s kinds and dosage、parameters of rotational speed and coagulant aid’s dosage was studied and optimized, which could provide crafts parameters of efficient-whirling clarifier for engineering application .

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  • Feasibility and optimization of wastewater treatment by ...

    2020-11-17 · Regarding the aim of our study, the experiment was divided into two phases. Batch tests were applied to select an optimal chemical coagulant from polyalumin-ium chloride (PAC), polyaluminium ferric chloride (PAFC), poly ferric sulfate (PFS) (individual or couple with poly acrylamide [PAM]) during the first phase. At the second

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  • Performance Evaluation of Tile Wastewater Treatment

    2017-6-29 · Results:The optimum PH of ferric chloride, ferric sulfate and ferrous that optimum was 11as well as it was 7 for aluminum sulfate and poly aluminum chloride. The optimum concentration of iron-based coagulants and aluminum-based coagulants was 0.3 g/L and 0.25 g/L, respectively. Poly aluminum chloride with removal of 99.92% , 99.94%,

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  • Improvement in the coagulation performance by

    2008-6-18 · Analytical grade PAC (poly aluminum chloride, Backkwang Chem-ical) and FeCl3 (ferric chloride, Wako Chemical) were selected as single coagulants in this study. Blended coagulants were prepared with a mixture of PAC and Ferric chloride in the ratios of 1.45, 0.48, and 0.16 mM Al/mM Fe and labeled as the blend coagulant I, II, and III, respectively.

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  • Study on Environmental Materials with Treatment

    The results showed that poly aluminum ferric chloride (PAFC) was chosen as an optimum coagulant for effective treatment. The optimal coagulation precipitation conditions were determined as follows: pH8, dosage of PAFC 1200mg/l, PAM100mg/l, sedimentation time 30 min.

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  • Optimization of Coagulation Pretreatment Conditions in

    The goal of this project was to identify optimal coagulation pretreatment conditions and cleaning protocols in a pilot-scale ceramic membrane system. A matrix of coagulation conditions (coagulant dose and pH) was investigated using aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride at two source waters (river and lake).

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  • Study on Environmental Materials with Treatment

    This study aimed at, pre-treatment of sweet potato starch wastewater and acquisition the application conditions of environmental materials though coagulation precipitation. The removal rates of COD and turbidity were investigated by process to find kind and quantity of suitable coagulant, quantity of coagulate aids, pH and setting time. The results showed that poly aluminum ferric chloride ...

    Get Price
  • Preparation and Study of a Composite Flocculant for ...

    2013-12-24 · polyaluminium ferric chloride and cationic polyacryla-mide, we tried to prepare a composite flocculant consist-ing of sodium alginate, polyaluminium ferric chloride and cationic polyacrylamide to treat papermaking waste- water. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the flocculation performance of the composite flocculant. 2.

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  • Optimal conditions of Al and Fe extraction from

    2012-8-9 · Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to find the optimum operating conditions for the selected factors (Montgomery 2005) that result in maximum extracted [Al] and [Fe]. D-optimal design was used to study the effect of T, t, and r on Al and Fe concentrations as two responses. The D-optimal design was specifically constructed for this ...

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  • Effects of Ca on the distribution, structure and ...

    2013-8-30 · The flocculation efficiency of polyaluminum chloride (PAC) is closely related to the distribution and structure of its Al species, and Al13 is the optimal species in PAC for flocculation. A series of PAC containing Ca was prepared by adding Ca before and after the basifying reaction. The effects of Ca on the Al species were studied by 27 Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and atomic …

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  • The Impact of Zeta Potential on the Physical

    2006-5-3 · The physical properties of natural organic matter (NOM) flocs, such as size, growth rate, and strength, were investigated using a laser diffraction particle sizing device. Conditions were set such that varying carbon coagulant ratio and zeta potential could both be investigated. Results demonstrated a link between zeta potential and coagulation and flocculation performance, with the production ...

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  • Studying the Characteristics of Polypyrrole and its

    2019-8-2 · for 5 hours. The optimal conditions for PPy and its composites preparation are summarized in Table 1. In a typical experiment 1 mL of pyrrole monomer was added to stirred aqueous or non-aqueous solutions 100 mL containing 4.8 g of ferric chloride and 0.6 …

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  • Fe+Al+()n - Poly Processing

    2019-8-15 · Ferric Chloride XLPE 1.65 PVC EPDM Titanium Ferric Sulfate XLPE 1.65 PVC EPDM Titanium Ferrous Chloride XLPE 1.9 PVC EPDM Titanium Ferrous Sulfate XLPE 1.65 PVC EPDM Titanium Polymers XLPE 1.35–1.9* PVC EPDM 316SS. The Poly Processing System For Ferrics, Alums And Polymers. 32. NOTE: To meet NSF-61 certification, use OR-1000 ™.

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  • Final Report: Small-Scale Studies on Low Intensity ...

    2020-2-5 · • Ferric sulfate, ferric chloride and poly ferric sulfate ... rapid or slow mixing specifications. For those coagulants affected by mixing regimes, the latter step of slow mixing appeared to more greatly affect coagulant ... does not occur under more optimal dosing conditions. Overdosing is defined in this

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  • Optimization of Electrospinning Conditions for Magnetic ...

    2021-7-7 · prepared on the optimum conditions: 12wt% concentration, 20 kV voltages, 20 cm tips to collector distance and 0.5 mL/h flow rate. At the optimal operating conditions for electrospinning, the role of MNPs content on the nanofibers diameter and specific surface area were explored. It was shown for the first time that, when the Fe 3 O 4

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  • Abstract - CORE

    2018-4-16 · The optimal dose of poly aluminum chloride coagulant is lower than other coagulants. . It also increases the amount of produced sludge by increasing the loading capacity and turbidity . The amount of sludge produced in the use of poly aluminum chloride coagulant is higher than other coagulants . Data from this study

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  • ISSN: 0975-766X CODEN: IJPTFI Available Online through ...

    2016-7-24 · The results showed that after using the poly aluminum chloride, ferrous sulfate, ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate coagulants, in the turbidity of 200, 100, 50, 20, 10 NTU, the pH level have reduced in a way that by increasing each mg/l poly aluminum chloride, ferrous sulfate, ferric chloride about 0.01 unit pH have reduced.

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  • Visibility Graph Analysis of Particle Size Distribution ...

    2021-2-17 · Treatability Assays. Jartest runs for chemical parameters suggested 20 mg L −1 as optimal dosage for ferric chloride at pH 6, leading to 99.7% turbidity removal (0.39 NTU residual) and a 97.6% color reduction (final apparent color value of 3.7 HU). As for ferric sulfate, 30 mg L −1 was chosen at a coagulation pH of 6, which lead to a final turbidity of 0.36 NTU and apparent color of 6.1 HU ...

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  • Treatment of primary effluent by coagulation–adsorption ...

    2019-11-7 · and ferric chloride on a raw wastewater. Percentages of reduction are 83.3 for turbidity, 75 for BOD and 78% for the COD for a concentration of FeCl 3 equal to 300 mg/l and 400 mg/l of Al 2 (SO 4) 3 with an optimum pH = 4.8. Al Malack and Anderson [2] determined the coagulation optimal conditions of raw wastewater with a concentration of 200 mg ...

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  • Journal of Environmental Health and Sustainable ...

    with an optimal dose of 200 mg/L 11. In another study on the treatment of wastewater from stone-cutting industries, Fahiminia et al. investigated the effects of different doses of coagulants, including aluminum sulfate (alum), poly-aluminum chloride, polymer, ferric chloride (FeCl3) and lime in

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  • Comparing Aluminium Sulfate and Poly-Aluminium

    2021-7-13 · removal efficiency in water treatment plants of Iran. In this study, the effectiveness of aluminium sulfate and poly-aluminum chloride was evaluated at different pH values and coagulant dosage in order to find optimal operational conditions for low to high turbidity waters. The influence of lime, as a coagulant aid, on coagulation

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  • Studying the Characteristics of Polypyrrole and its

    2019-8-2 · for 5 hours. The optimal conditions for PPy and its composites preparation are summarized in Table 1. In a typical experiment 1 mL of pyrrole monomer was added to stirred aqueous or non-aqueous solutions 100 mL containing 4.8 g of ferric chloride and 0.6 …

    Get Price
  • Fe+Al+()n - Poly Processing

    2019-8-15 · Ferric Chloride XLPE 1.65 PVC EPDM Titanium Ferric Sulfate XLPE 1.65 PVC EPDM Titanium Ferrous Chloride XLPE 1.9 PVC EPDM Titanium Ferrous Sulfate XLPE 1.65 PVC EPDM Titanium Polymers XLPE 1.35–1.9* PVC EPDM 316SS. The Poly Processing System For Ferrics, Alums And Polymers. 32. NOTE: To meet NSF-61 certification, use OR-1000 ™.

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  • Final Report: Small-Scale Studies on Low Intensity ...

    2020-2-5 · • Ferric sulfate, ferric chloride and poly ferric sulfate ... rapid or slow mixing specifications. For those coagulants affected by mixing regimes, the latter step of slow mixing appeared to more greatly affect coagulant ... does not occur under more optimal dosing conditions. Overdosing is defined in this

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  • Study on the effect of chitosan conditioning on sludge ...

    2019-2-1 · For example, Zhu et al. (Zhu et al. 2007) studied the treatment of excess sludge with PAM (polyacrylamide) - PAFC (polymeric ferric chloride), and found that when the total dosage of flocculants was 190 mg/L, the moisture content in sludge decreased from 97% to 79%, and the sludge volume decreased by 86%.

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  • Characterization of an inorganic polymer coagulant

    The pH of water always influences the coagulation performance significantly. 16 It has been reported that organic matter can be better treated under acidic condition than under neutral and alkaline conditions. 28 However, in this study, the optimal pH for the treatment of HA/algae-polluted water was between 6 and 9.

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  • Effects on Effluent Quality of Industrial Waste Water ...

    2019-7-1 · The coagulant dosage of ferric chloride ranged between 0.5 g/L and 3 g/L, whereas the concentrations of polyelectrolyte and clay minerals varied between 5-75 mg/L and 25-750 mg/L, respectively. The optimal condition was obtained at the dosage 2 g/L ferric chloride at pH 11 with the COD removal efficiency of 71%.

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  • Preparation and regeneration of iron-modified

    2019-9-4 · After optimizing the preparation conditions of the iron-loaded nanocellulose, ferric chloride was determined to be the best modifier chemical. The specific surface area of the modified adsorbent increased from 14.48 to 138.91 m 2 g −1 .

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  • Comparing Aluminium Sulfate and Poly-Aluminium

    2021-7-13 · removal efficiency in water treatment plants of Iran. In this study, the effectiveness of aluminium sulfate and poly-aluminum chloride was evaluated at different pH values and coagulant dosage in order to find optimal operational conditions for low to high turbidity waters. The influence of lime, as a coagulant aid, on coagulation

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  • Treatment of Kulim and Kuala Sepetang Landfills

    2017-8-16 · chloride and poly-aluminium sulphate chloride), and polymer (zeolite, starch, chitosan, and polyamines) 14. Aluminium and ferric salts are the most common coagulants used for water and wastewater treatment. However, in the past few years, poly aluminiun chloride (PACl) has surged and gradually replaced

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  • STREAMING CURRENT MONITOR - Hach

    • The ability to easily set zero point reflecting optimal coagulant feed provides a simple means of problem identification. • Since the evaluation study, this water plant has acquired a second Accufloc SCM and gained a significant amount of trust and confidence in the SCM technology and the monitor.

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  • ISSN: 0975-766X CODEN: IJPTFI Available Online through ...

    2016-7-24 · The results showed that after using the poly aluminum chloride, ferrous sulfate, ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate coagulants, in the turbidity of 200, 100, 50, 20, 10 NTU, the pH level have reduced in a way that by increasing each mg/l poly aluminum chloride, ferrous sulfate, ferric chloride about 0.01 unit pH have reduced.

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  • Abstract - CORE

    2018-4-16 · The optimal dose of poly aluminum chloride coagulant is lower than other coagulants. . It also increases the amount of produced sludge by increasing the loading capacity and turbidity . The amount of sludge produced in the use of poly aluminum chloride coagulant is higher than other coagulants . Data from this study

    Get Price
  • Journal of Environmental Health and Sustainable ...

    with an optimal dose of 200 mg/L 11. In another study on the treatment of wastewater from stone-cutting industries, Fahiminia et al. investigated the effects of different doses of coagulants, including aluminum sulfate (alum), poly-aluminum chloride, polymer, ferric chloride (FeCl3) and lime in

    Get Price
  • Optimization and economic evaluation of modified ...

    2018-10-17 · Chemicals. Poly-aluminum chloride (Al 2 (OH) n Cl 6−n.YH 2 O, Al 2 O 3 = 30%wt, basicity = 65% and pH = 3) was used as a coagulant and anionic (A 300), cationic (C 270) and nonionic polymers, as the coagulant aids were provided from AquaTech Company, Switzerland.. Preparation of solution. In order to prepare a 10 percent clear solution for coagulant, 10 g of PAC was dissolved to 100 mL of ...

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  • (PDF) Flocculation activity of novel ferric chloride ...

    2010-8-16 · the optimal conditions for nutrients. It was possible to produce an aqueous solution, rich in ferric sul-fate, which could be used as a coagulant. Water treatment tests, carried out at the laboratory, demon-strate that this coagulant is equally efficient when compared with conventional coagulants (ferric sulfate and aluminum sulfate).

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  • Biohydrometallurgical Process to Produce the Coagulant ...

    2021-7-13 · removal efficiency in water treatment plants of Iran. In this study, the effectiveness of aluminium sulfate and poly-aluminum chloride was evaluated at different pH values and coagulant dosage in order to find optimal operational conditions for low to high turbidity waters. The influence of lime, as a coagulant aid, on coagulation

    Get Price
  • Comparing Aluminium Sulfate and Poly-Aluminium

    2015-9-19 · phosphorus release in any anoxic conditions (Yonghong et al., 2005). The use of PAC however, still ultimately yields sludge rich in aluminium hereafter referred to as polyaluminium water treatment sludge (PA-WTS), which poses a challenge to dispose. From a chemical point of view, polyaluminum chloride (PAC) is similar to alum,

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  • Effect of polyaluminium chloride water treatment sludge

    Another study by Baghvand et al. reported that the highest turbidity removal by using alum and ferric chloride as coagulant was 82.9–99.0 and 92.9–99.4%, respectively (Baghvand et al. 2010). Agbovi & Wilson (2019) examined and optimized the removal efficiency of turbidity using an amphoteric chitosan-based flocculant–ferric chloride by RSM.

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  • Treatment of highly turbid water in disaster conditions ...

    2018-12-19 · Abstract: This work addresses the problem of learning optimal control policies for a multi-agent system in an adversarial environment. Specifically, we focus on multi-agent systems where the mission objectives are expressed as signal temporal logic (STL) specifications. The agents are classified as either defensive or adversarial.

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  • Final Report: Small-Scale Studies on Low Intensity ...

    2020-2-5 · • Ferric sulfate, ferric chloride and poly ferric sulfate ... rapid or slow mixing specifications. For those coagulants affected by mixing regimes, the latter step of slow mixing appeared to more greatly affect coagulant ... does not occur under more optimal dosing conditions. Overdosing is defined in this

    Get Price
  • Fe+Al+()n - Poly Processing

    2019-8-15 · Ferric Chloride XLPE 1.65 PVC EPDM Titanium Ferric Sulfate XLPE 1.65 PVC EPDM Titanium Ferrous Chloride XLPE 1.9 PVC EPDM Titanium Ferrous Sulfate XLPE 1.65 PVC EPDM Titanium Polymers XLPE 1.35–1.9* PVC EPDM 316SS. The Poly Processing System For Ferrics, Alums And Polymers. 32. NOTE: To meet NSF-61 certification, use OR-1000 ™.

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  • Optimizing Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment

    2019-3-16 · The optimal coagulant (15 mg/L ferric chloride) and flocculant (0.5 mg/L poly aluminum chloride (PACl)) combination achieved total COD, soluble COD, total suspended solids (TSS), and total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiencies of 76, 58, 89, and 84, respectively, in a full-scale

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  • Comparison of the effect of different medicaments on ...

    2013-7-1 · The aim of the study was to determine the effect of three retraction cord medicaments (5% aluminium chloride, 13.3% ferric sulphate and 0.1% epinephrine) on the two brands of medium body polyvinyl siloxane impression materials (Aquasil- Dentsply and Imprint II- 3M ESPE).

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  • Biohydrometallurgical Process to Produce the Coagulant ...

    2010-8-16 · the optimal conditions for nutrients. It was possible to produce an aqueous solution, rich in ferric sul-fate, which could be used as a coagulant. Water treatment tests, carried out at the laboratory, demon-strate that this coagulant is equally efficient when compared with conventional coagulants (ferric sulfate and aluminum sulfate).

    Get Price
  • Effect of polyaluminium chloride water treatment sludge

    2015-9-19 · phosphorus release in any anoxic conditions (Yonghong et al., 2005). The use of PAC however, still ultimately yields sludge rich in aluminium hereafter referred to as polyaluminium water treatment sludge (PA-WTS), which poses a challenge to dispose. From a chemical point of view, polyaluminum chloride (PAC) is similar to alum,

    Get Price
  • CLU-IN | Technologies > Remediation > About

    Chloride . EPA Method 300.1 or SW-846: 9056A (laboratory methods), Hach chloride test kit Model 8-P, or ISE for field measurements. General water quality parameter. Chloride is also produced by anaerobic dechlorination of CAHs.

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  • Time to revisit red blood cell additive solutions and ...

    An example is a recent study that showed that RBCs stored in an alkaline, chloride-free additive solution had higher intracellular concentrations of ATP and 2,3-DPG, as expected, but unexpectedly this did not appear to be related to the intracellular pH, which became acidic within the first week of storage 25.

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  • Unplasticised Polyvinyl Chloride - Unplasticised PVC -

    2001-8-30 · Unplasticised Polyvinyl Chloride - Unplasticised PVC - UPVC. Download PDF Copy. Request Quote. Aug 30 2001. It is an amorphous commodity thermoplastic that can be colorless and transparent but is much more commonly pigmented. It is strong, stiff, and inherently flame retardant with relatively good chemical resistance (solvents are its weak area ...

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  • Study on the Mechanical Properties and Damage

    parameter: the sand proportion. In this study, the sand proportion was increased from 0% to 30% in 5% increments. A total of 7 sets of test samples were designed, and the same ratio was met according to the specifications. There are three test blocks in each group: a cubic compression testing block with dimensions of 100 mm ×

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